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Six Main Types of Automotive Primary Wires

Automotive primary lines are used in various applications like wiring a battery harness, general circuitry, and specialized electric connections. Different connections have varying demands, hence the need for a variety of automotive wires. Automotive leads are segregated according to the temperatures they can withstand. These wires are constructed using various materials to ensure compatibility across applications.

6 Main types of Automotive Primary Wires

Automotive primary wires are primarily divided in the following types:

  • GPT: These lines are manufactured to be compatible with SAE J-1128 specific circuitry. Temperature Range: -40 °C – 90 °C
  • TWP: These cords feature smaller diameters and are lighter than other wires. They can also be manufactured without any lead. Temperature Range: -40 °C – 90 °C
  • HDT: It stands for heavy duty thermoplastic. It consists of a protective layer that allows it to be used in harsh environments. Temperature Range: -40 °C – 105 °C
  • GXL: These cables are used in general circuitry and ground wiring of batteries. They are used in high temperature SAE J-1128 specific circuitry. Temperature Range: -40 °C – 155 °C
  • SXL: Like GXL wires, these wires are also used in general circuitry and ground wiring of batteries. Temperature Range: -40 °C – 155 °C
  • TXL: This is a low tension high temperature wire. It is light and features a small diameter. Temperature Range: -40 °C – 155 °C

Customization of Wires

If you are unable to find the right type of automotive primary wire for your application from the list mentioned above, you will benefit from customizing your wire. A manufacturer with customization capabilities will be able to understand your application requirements and design a product that meets those specific needs. Please remember that the cost for designing and manufacturing a custom product is higher than buying a product in stock. The reason for this lies in economies of scale. A product being manufactured in bulk will be priced lower compared to one manufactured in limited quantities. This is because the cost of the raw materials, employee, or consultant fees, designing, and other factors influencing the overall cost of a product will also be lower.

Depending on your application, you can opt for standard or customized wires. Your manufacturer or supplier will be able to guide you regarding the same. You can also conduct tests with sample products to check the compatibility of the product and application. You can put the wires through various stress, temperature, and other relevant tests. These steps will allow you to check the performance of the product and choose one that is compatible with your application.

The 7 Automotive Fluids Necessary for Every Vehicle

Every vehicle, whether car or truck, requires seven automotive fluids in order to increase lifespan and maintain optimal and safe driving conditions. These fluids can be purchased at any store that has an automotive department, or at a local auto parts store, at prices between 4 and 15 dollars depending on the brand and retailer. Since these fluids are readily-available and inexpensive to buy, there is no reason why you shouldn’t stay on top of them. Learn your vehicle’s factory maintenance schedule so you can know exactly when each fluid needs checked or replaced. Keep in mind that some fluids are best changed out by a licensed automotive technician, so be sure to find an auto shop you can trust for quality work and fair prices. Continue reading to learn the seven essential automotive fluids every vehicle needs to drive safely and stay in good condition for years to come.

Motor Oil

Engine oil is of course one of the most well-known and significant fluids for cars and trucks. It lubricates all the inner workings and moving parts of a car engine’s crank case to reduce heat-causing friction. Without proper lubrication at all times, parts like pistons, valves, and more, are subject to damage. This renders a motor useless.

Depending on the make and model of your particular vehicle, the schedule for oil changes will vary slightly. Check your owners’ manual or consult a trusted local mechanic for information about your vehicle’s factory scheduled maintenance. Generally, motor oil should be changed every 5,000 or 6 months, whichever comes first.

Transmission Fluid

Transmission fluid is red in color and very similar to motor oil in terms of its function. This is because it cools and lubricates the inner workings of a vehicle’s transmission. This keeps the vehicle’s gears in good condition, allowing for easy gear changes and functionality. Generally, this fluid should be changed one time per year. Again, check your owner’ manual, or download one online, for specific maintenance schedule information.

Radiator Fluid/Coolant

Your vehicle’s coolant is a must, since without it, your car is sure to overheat. Radiator fluid, also called coolant, is a 50/50 combination of solution and water, and can come in a variety of colors depending on the brand and type you buy. It keeps the engine from overheating by circulating through the engine and collecting heat, returning it to the radiator, and then dispersing this heat outside. This should be changed as needed, depending on how often you drive and your driving habits. Generally, coolant should be changed every 3 to 5 months, or 3,000 to 5,000 miles.

Brake Fluid

In terms of passenger safety, you might say brake fluid is the most important for a vehicle. Brake fluid allows for proper hydraulic functioning of the car brakes. When you push down on the brake pedal, the brake fluid compresses, sending hydraulic force to the brake pads and shoes, which provides the friction needed to stop a vehicle. Generally, brake fluid should be replaced every 2 years, or 30,000 miles. Check your owners’ manual for details.

Power Steering Fluid

Power steering fluid is pressurized by a small hydraulic pump that is powered by the vehicle’s engine. It allows the vehicle to turn easier. This fluids enhances the steering mechanism of a car or truck. Without it, it would feel as if the steering wheel weighs 100 pounds. This fluids needs replaced generally every 4 years or 60,000 miles.

Battery Fluid

If your vehicle has a “maintenance-free” battery, then you will not be required to check its fluid levels. But for older model cars and trucks, batteries have individual cells that need to be refilled with battery fluid. This fluid, of course, maintains the car battery’s power, allowing for turning the ignition and starting the engine. Battery fluid should be changed generally every 6 to 8 months or 7,500 miles.

Windshield Wiper Fluid

Most often forgotten or overlooked, windshield wiper fluid is an essential part of driver and passenger safety. This is a fluid anyone can re-fill themselves, as needed. Simply by this well-known blue solution at a gas station or auto parts store. Refill as needed.

How Automotive Foam Suppliers Can Increase Your Profits

The advanced capabilities of a robotically automated production line are nearly limitless. But, when paired with smart software and even smarter designers who know how to finely tune aspects of your product, they produce superior and uncanny results. Whether you just want to consolidate a set of features into one area of a car or car-related accessory, or you are looking to maximize the efficiency of your space by cutting down on extraneous padding, a smart designer is essential in showing you how to smoothly trim each feature without losing the integrity you originally sought to present.

Smart Design Example

Let’s say your design team is working on a new way to optimize fuel costs and available occupant space in a vehicle by streamlining the paneling and molding throughout your interior compartments. By replacing heavy metal components that aren’t necessary for structural integrity with polyurethane foam, you can not only create attractive and comfortable features, but can also lighten the vehicle’s final payload, offering additional fuel savings that make the vehicle more attractive in the modern age. As well, by using smart automotive foam suppliers, these features can be finely customized to enhance their aesthetic quality, but more on that later.

Efficient Molding Architecture

It’s important that your automotive foam suppliers have the latest mold creation techniques. The creation of the foam itself through smart initial pouring techniques not only saves you money on materials, it creates a quicker production time, which means less money spent on powering the machines in the first place. It also means less money spent on the man-hours of production engineers to ensure the quality and accuracy of your particular project. The last thing you want is a supplier that uses outdated techniques to create general moldings that require extensive trimming, additional supplemental materials, or worse, multiple piece constructions where a single, uniform piece could have been created.

The Craft of Customization

Both of the aforementioned ideals come together supremely when you find automotive foam suppliers who can truly customize your design and architecture. This step is far more than simply creating efficient processes that cut down on waste or streamline a design to correct for potential flaws in functionality. This is a process of circumventing barriers in industry standards and methods that create substandard and inferior products.

Because this step is so critical, let’s focus on something small. Let’s say that you are trying to improve the comfort and functionality of a bucket seat design by creating a form-fitting architecture that eliminates the bulky waste of previous designs. So, you’ve completed your smart design phase, and you are ready to move on to your efficient molding. However, the automotive foam suppliers say that they would rather use the previous, bulky moldings to save on the cost of manufacturing new ones. This will mean more time spent in the subsequent phases of trimming, and it might even entail breaking up a uniform piece into separate sections. Skip out on the corner-cutters, and stick with a company that will customize every aspect of your project to give you the best results, both in profit and product.

Automotive Air Compressors – Keep One Handy to Maintain Your Tires

One thing that I love about cars is the convenience they provide for our lives. I mean, I don’t mind taking public transportation but then I have to go by their schedule. I believe in keeping my car healthy in much the same way I believe in keeping my body healthy.

There are some areas of normal car maintenance that are often neglected. Your tire pressure is one of them. Did you know that having properly inflated tires can reduce accidents? It is estimated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration that under inflated tires contribute to 660 fatalities and 33,000 injuries each year. In the same token, over inflated tires can pose a danger if they blow out, especially at high speeds.

It is recommended that tires be checked every month. Every motorist should invest in a tire pressure gauge. These are available at any of your local auto supply stores. Keeping a portable automotive air compressor in your car adds to your convenience so that you don’t always have to go to a gas station to fill up with air (which is usually 75 cents!). In addition, many of these electric air compressors come with their own accurate tire pressure gauge to you can monitor correctly as you pump the tires.

I will hopefully go into more detail of the more technical aspects of what happens to under inflated tires in my next article. In the meantime, please check the actual recommended tire pressure for your vehicle usually located inside the car door or your manual. The tire pressure number located on the side of each tire is just the maximum load.

Business Management Supply Chain – Product Kits, an ERP Solution to the Automotive Grey Market

An increasing threat to the automotive industry over the past decade has been the growth in the use of non-genuine parts, known as the grey market. The grey market is the third party market in non-genuine parts, clones of the original manufactured components. Distributors deal with the grey market problem and its growth by trying to find ways of providing incentives to use genuine parts. Many have started to use kits which link together key components to provide a complete solution. These kits offer considerable financial, logistical and quality incentives, as well as improved warranties, to dealers and their customers and so remove the need to look to the grey market for replacement parts. This market is growing rapidly, especially within Asia, and includes counterfeit parts, as well as parts that are not intended to be counterfeit but are simply cheaper replacement parts. ERP software solutions, particularly the supply chain software, inventory correctly managed and configured must be capable of

For the customer, the use of non-genuine parts carries considerable financial risk. Grey market parts are almost universally inferior in quality to genuine parts and although cheaper initially, have to be replaced at more frequent intervals. They usually offer very limited warranty and, as these are individual components, each must carry its own warranty whereas a kit of genuine parts provides a more comprehensive warranty from the manufacturer. Another consideration is that the use of non-genuine parts potentially places all warranty at risk. Many distributors issue warranties under the condition that only genuine or approved parts are used.

In addition, the use of non-genuine parts can potentially affect the life span, or quality of a genuine part, particularly in the case where a non-genuine part is a component of multiple parts. If that non-genuine part endures greater and more rapid wear and tear, the rest of the components will suffer similarly. It requires more service, so in the short term, the cost is lower but in the long term, it actually may be a lot higher. A good example of that are components that endure a lot of wear and tear such as brake pads. Brake pads are a common item and non-genuine pads are known to wear at a greater rate, and therefore need to be replaced much more frequently.

The negative effects of the grey market on the manufacturer and distributor are many and varied. For example, a grey market brake pad may last one quarter as long as a genuine pad, and if the owner is unaware that the replacement is not a genuine part, blame may well be attributed to the manufacturer. For the distributor, the grey market cuts into market share. A major point of contention is when qualified service points use non-genuine parts. A vehicle owner may naturally expect that a qualified service point will provide genuine parts replacement. In fact, many distributors believe that their competition is not so much fellow distributors, but the market in grey spares.

Re-conditioned parts are another problem. It may not be well known amongst vehicle owners, but parts are sometimes removed from damaged or written-off vehicles. Instead of using new genuine parts, re-conditioned parts can be used. The longevity of that part is, therefore, not known, however a vehicle owner will expect that a genuine service will provide genuine parts. Although this is not yet prevalent in Australia due to the cost of importing grey parts, it can be the case in Asia as parts fail earlier than expected, leading to customer dissatisfaction and low regard for customer service. And as the cost of these items decreases and the quality improves, the distributor will find it even more difficult to compete. Kitting therefore becomes an integral and critical competitive strategy to counter the grey market.


There are two types of kits: Build Kits and Bill of Material (BOM) Kits. A Build Kit is one in which individual parts are pre-assembled before they are ordered and made available as a packaged unit. This type of kit is traditionally developed around a selection of dependent parts that are constantly used. An example in the automotive industry would be a 20,000km service kit, consisting of the relevant parts which are packaged ready for the service centre to use. It eliminates the requirement to determine and then search for individual components to complete the service. A single part number represents multiple parts.

A Build Kit provides an easy ordering process and eliminates the potential errors which are sometimes introduced when ordering individual parts. Furthermore, service centres may not have all of the required parts to perform a service or to replace faulty components. A Build Kit solves this problem.

A BOM Kit is used in situations where a single part number represents many smaller components. In simple terms, this kit expands into all the individual components and is picked and packaged at the time of order. For example, rather than ordering components individually, a single part number would enable all component parts to be ordered at once, eliminating errors and ensuring an easier, more comprehensive, higher quality ordering process.

Benefits of Kitting and Incentives

To solve the problem of non-genuine parts in the heavy vehicle industry many distributors have service kits for every level of service up to 100,000km. It is simple to find the kit for the model, for the service and order accordingly. Rather than have multiple line items in a purchase order, a single line item is sent to the warehouse that is then packaged and sent. A kit gives the dealer confidence that all components required for a particular job are present. In addition to Service Kits, the truck industry has developed the concept of Smash Kits – front-end, rear-end and specific panels Smash Kits. For example, a front-end kit would normally require two headlights, a grille, radiator, hoses and associated parts. This could be an excellent opportunity for BOM Kits. A dealer can simply type the kit required for the particular model, and then pick which components are required

The trucking companies are often the litmus test. Trends are identified, and because the trucking industry is very competitive, opportunities to provide a customer service or cost advantage are extremely important. However, the automotive passenger vehicle industry is now starting to follow the truck industry in using kits.

Some incentives are being offered, for example, a kit provides a financial incentive as opposed to purchasing individual parts. These incentives vary but, for example, a particular service kit may cost $1,000 if each component is purchased individually, but $750 if purchased in kit form. Additionally, if a single component price is reduced in the marketplace, the overall kit price may still be able to balance the overall cost of the kit, thereby maintaining good profit margins.

There is also a positive effect on quality, and on supply and service times. The service dealer can be assured that all the correct parts are available for the service and that he will not have to search for or re-order forgotten components. Instead of keying the 20 or so components for a particular service, a single key is used that incorporates all of the required components. The kit is then handed to the mechanic who has all that is required to provide that service. Quality is maintained because the parts are genuine and carry appropriate warranties. These benefits provide the dealer’s customer with a guaranteed level of service, ongoing support, and an increased level of satisfaction. Ultimately this may well lead to repeat and referral business for the dealer. The true incentive for the distributor is in limiting the need to go beyond the available stock and access the grey market.

Forecasting and logistics

Kitting also assists in many aspects of the supply chain, particularly inventory management systems and warehouse management. Once a kit has been assembled and the trend for that type of kit has been analysed correctly, it becomes much easier to determine inventory turnover during a defined period. Business management supply chain software can have an automatic replenishment process once a kit level has fallen below a predetermined stock arrangement.

Kits do, however, require some initial adjustment to forecasting practice. For example, if 50 kits are built, quite often it is incorrectly recorded that 50 items have been moved. However, often there is only a requirement to record demand, particularly the demand on individual components that make up a kit. In the early stages of building kits, demand for each component is critical until the appropriate forecast can be determined. Once the correct balance of the number of kits required has been established the stock arrangements can be easily dealt with. One of the dangers of kits, of course, is that there is no point in building 100 kits if only ten are being turned over monthly. With correct forecasting, it is easier to build kits a month in advance, instead of perhaps 12 months and having considerable stock sitting on shelves with a perception of low turnover.

There is no doubt that kits also provide a better level of business intelligence. Many distributors have noticed some dealers increasing their purchasing based on kits and so they can also then forecast more accurately. Without kits, the ability to maintain stock levels can be difficult as there may not be true visibility as to the use of the individual components. Trends are easier to analyse for each dealer, based on a prediction of when the next service will be due. For example, it becomes possible to predict that vehicles that have just had a 20,000km service will probably require a 30,000km service and the appropriate number of kits at a defined future time. Stock levels can then be maintained and more accurate forecasting is possible. For the distributor benefit is gained through forecasting kits, as well as the individual components that make up those kits.

Many distributors use outside logistics companies, and kits provide a much simpler process for logistics because of the way they account for handling and inventory. A common accounting process is to pay per line item. As a kit will represent a single line item, but include considerably more components, the cost of logistics can be reduced. For example, if a kit consists of three line items, payment will be made on a single line as opposed to three lines, resulting in considerable logistics savings.


With the growth and availability of third party spares components, suppliers and distributors are looking to creative ways to maintain market share as well as ensure that the quality of spare parts in the automotive market place is not diluted. Spares kits are a practical solution to this threat. Dealers can easily order kits relative to the work to be performed and be assured that all components are in place at a price that is attractive and significantly reduced from individual parts ordering. Suppliers can be assured that genuine parts are being used, so too customers whose satisfaction is guaranteed. Kits enable business intelligence to be increased with a more predictable and consistent spare parts forecasting process and inventory requirements can be minimised and based on real knowledge of customer behaviour. Kits together with your ERP software solution can enable the supply chain itself to be streamlined to meet dealer delivery expectations.

Styles of Automotive Lifts Available – Get Car Lifts That Meet Your Needs

Automotive lifts come in a large number of different styles. Some are designed specifically for small garages while others are made for large, professional garages. In both of these categories, some styles are built with long-term storage in mind. Here are a few of the different styles of car lifts you might be looking at.

Post Style Automotive Lifts

Two-post car lifts are a popular choice for most home garages because they use a small amount of space while still handling many different styles and sizes of vehicles. Symmetrical two-post lifts have two posts across from each other with stabilizing bars in the opposite direction to hold it steady centering the vehicle’s weight. Asymmetrical lifts have rotated posts with weight towards the front. The biggest difference between the two styles of lifts is that asymmetrical lifts allow access to the interior of the vehicle while a symmetrical style is better equipped to lift rear heavy vehicles.

Four post automotive lifts are commonly used for long-term storage and can lift heavier vehicles. This is because the additional two posts make them more stable. Unlike their two-post counterparts, vehicles are driven onto the lift. They are often found in the home garages of automotive enthusiasts, and even on antique and car show floors. Auto dealers often use this style for the vehicles in their showrooms.

Scissor And Parallelogram Lifts

While their design does not make them a wise choice for storage purposes, scissor lifts are ideal for working underneath a vehicle in a home garage. They often have a bigger price tag than post models and require more space. However, they give mechanics the space to work in the centers of undercarriages and are particularly convenient for larger vehicles such as buses.

Hydraulic Car Lifts

Mechanics who use their automotive lifts frequently often select this style. These models utilize the power of hydraulics to raise and lower a vehicle. Hydraulic lifts provide an added level of safety along with their ease of use. Specifically designed liquids that are run through cylinders and pumps power the action.

Some models combine the power of electricity with hydraulics. These are the most popular types of automotive lifts available since the power runs the hydraulics. They have great stability for storage and work quickly and easily enough for frequent professional and amateur mechanics as well as some professional storage companies.

Mechanical And In-Ground Lifts

These are similar to hydraulic styles without the hydraulics to raise and lower the units. Rather than liquids and cylinders, this style requires the use of locks, screws, bolts, and wrenches to lift. These models are inconvenient to use. Since hydraulic models are not priced much higher than mechanical styles, this option is often left behind.

In-ground lifts are space saving and convenient, however, these features come with a bigger price tag. These are the styles seen in big repair shops. The lift is stored at a level that is level with the floor so that cars can be parked on top overnight. They also work well for commercial applications because they add floor space when they aren’t being used to prevent damage caused by crowding.

Specific Use Models

Space-saving garage models are reserved for the indoor storage of multiple vehicles. These car lifts give the user the benefit of storing one vehicle on top just inches from a second one stored underneath. Showcase lifts have added features and appealing finishes. They are designed to complement the vehicle they are storing specifically for show purposes. They are often seen at places such as professional car shows and auto dealers. Both the garage and showcase units come in a few different styles.

These are just a few of the many different options for automotive lifts. A style has been created to fit into industrial and home garages. Some have added stability while others are great for quick jobs. When selecting car lifts for the jobs you have in mind, there is sure to be a style you can be confident with.

Exhaust Headers – A Crash Course On Automotive Performance

The problem is that most people have no clue where to start. Rather than getting on some forums and researching their options, most 17 year olds throw a tin can muffler on their 92 Civic and give performance parts a bad name.

You’ve probably seen the Fast and Furious and thought, “Dang, those cars are sweet!” But not all parts are created equal. Start by identifying your goals and expectations. Also, think about the long run. You might save a few bucks now by going with a new muffler, but if you pay a little more you can add a full exhaust and really see results.

I suggest you start by making a list of a few parts you are considering. Then research which ones work best for your vehicle and which order you would like to add them. Lastly, it is worth it to shop around online. Spending half an hour online comparing a few shops can save you a few hundred bucks.

This article will bring you up to speed on exhaust headers.

1. How much power can you get from exhaust headers?

No two vehicles are exactly alike, so it is impossible to assign specific numbers of horsepower or torque. In general, a set of performance exhaust headers will unlock around an extra 5-25 horsepower along with a noticeable boost in rear-wheel torque.

2. Will performance exhaust headers discolor?

Performance exhaust headers absorb some of the most punishing abuse of any part on your vehicle. They are constantly being cooked at temperatures of around 500 degrees Fahrenheit, and time will eventually take its toll on any finish. Performance exhaust headers with ceramic coating are the most resilient and will retain their finish the longest. Stainless steel is also incredibly durable, but it will start to tinge slightly after a while. Nickel-chrome will also change color, especially if used for racing or towing. High-temperature paint usually stays the same, but it can be chipped.

However, discoloration does not affect the performance of your exhaust headers. They still work just the same on the inside no matter how they look on the outside. It just depends on your level of OCD.

3. Are performance exhaust headers street legal?

It depends on which performance exhaust headers you get and which state you live in. Most of the headers are 50-state street legal, which means that they don’t interfere with pollution-controls on your vehicle. Some headers are designed for off-road or racing vehicles that are exempt from smog certification, so they are not street-legal. Then again, some states have more relaxed pollution controls than others, so a set of off-road headers in California might be street-legal in Montana. If your state requires that you pass a smog test, get a set of headers that are 50-state street legal. If not, then they sky’s the limit. Either way, check with your local DMV.

4. Will performance exhaust headers void my vehicle’s warranty?

It depends. Vehicle manufacturers cannot refuse to perform repairs just because you have installed performance parts. However, if they can prove that the part itself contributed to the problem, or if your warranty expressly prohibits performance upgrades, then they can refuse to honor the warranty. Always take the time to read your warranty before installing any aftermarket parts.

5. Which performance exhaust headers have the most thermal protection?

Hands down, ceramic coatings have the greatest resistance to heat damage. Besides protecting the headers from burning out and discoloring, the ceramic coating insulates the header’s piping. This keeps the temperatures in your engine compartment down, which improves your overall efficiency.

6. Are performance exhaust headers difficult to install?

Bolting on a set of performance exhaust headers may seem like a daunting task, but it is a fairly straightforward installation. As long as you have the right tools, a sturdy floor jack, and some experience under the hood, you should have no problems. Of course, having a buddy around to lend a hand always helps. If you are concerned about installing your performance exhaust headers on your own, most garages and muffler shops can do the work for you.

7. Which performance exhaust headers are right for my vehicle?

Most online automotive stores have a vehicle selector, where they will display parts that specifically fit your vehicle. All you have to do is enter your vehicle information. Still have questions? Don’t be lazy! Pick up the phone and ask a professional about performance exhaust headers, cat back exhaust systems or any other parts for your vehicle.

Automotive Insurance

Automotive insurance means vehicle insurance. Automotive insurance industry is growing with a faster rate and reason behind is, nowadays customers are over conscious regarding their safety and security and the compulsion from the government of each state. As a result of which there are too many players in the market also who everyday come out with some different scheme and try to attract customers.

It is very difficult to avoid accidents so to cover those accidents insurance providers are there. They try to cover the everything the basic coverage is BIL, PDL etc. In bodily injury liability in such type of liability if your vehicle hit or get crashed then whatever liability you are accounted for starting from the damages to the penalty and the medical expenses of the opposite party will be given by the insurance company. In property damage liability the damage of property to the other party will be covered which is done by the insurance holder. Similarly there is collision coverage according to which if your vehicle collide with any other vehicle then the repairmen cost and any other cost related to the vehicle of the insurance holder will be provided by the company.

To help the customers each state of America has a department of automotive insurance they try to help customers regarding the affiliated companies and the rules and regulations of the states. Each sate has its different website and many of them give the log in id and password also to access the important data related to past driving record etc. Automotive insurance main aim is to save the property of the customers and also as a social aspect to make everyone drive safe. Mainly it is for bad drivers. In automotive insurance there are policies which say that if you learn defensive driving techniques from the state and can get certification then can avail discounts from some of the insurance companies.

Automotive insurance do justice with every type of driver, if the driver is a female then she has very low premiums allocated to her since women are generally safe drivers. Similarly if the driver is a man of below age group 25 years then he will be charged extra for the greater risk which he carries with him.

Automotive industry is flourishing and also along with it some subsidiary business like companies which only makes the data base of quotes offered by different insurance providers is also flourishing.

Automotive Equipment and Tools For The Automotive Industry

The automotive equipment industry deals with the production of every kind of tool and machinery that is needed for the manufacture, maintenance and repair of vehicles including cars and car parts. As such, the industry produces several different varieties of equipment starting from basic hand tools to more complex machinery.

Different Kinds of Automotive Equipment

Automotive workshops and garages will be unable to function without automotive equipment. Shop furniture, lifts, exhaust hoses, air compressors, lubrication equipment, electric and light reels, jacks, vehicle servicing equipment, fluid storage tanks and trans-air piping are some of the many different types of automotive equipment that are used by automotive manufacturing and automotive repair businesses.

Common Types Of Automotive Equipment

* Hand Tools: Automotive repair shops use several different types of hand tools for their repair and maintenance projects. Some of the commonest items include ratchet sets and wrench sets, crowbars (also known as pry bars), socket sets, screwdrivers, star and clutch-head drivers, hammers, pliers and wire cutters, electric drills, hacksaws and torque wrenches.

* Pneumatic Tools: Most automotive workshops now use pneumatic tools as an alternative to electricity powered motors because the latter is more prone to fire hazards. Such tools are powered by compressed air and are high powered versions of the more traditional hand tools. Common examples of pneumatic automotive equipment include air compressors that can be used to power a variety of tools including hammers, drills, ratchets and spraying tools.

* Availability of pneumatic equipment makes it easier for mechanics and technicians to undertake repair and maintenance work because they are powerful and easy to use. For example, a set of pneumatic shears can cut through sheet metal at a faster rate and leave behind a smoother edge when compared to traditional tin snips. Similarly, air hammers outfitted with chisel or punch bits have multiple uses. They can they be used for straightening dents. The chisel feature can be used to break rusted parts loose and the punch bits can be used to remove old rivets and bolts that are too difficult to take out by hand.

* Lifts: several different kinds of lifting equipment are used to lift and secure cars so that mechanics and repair persons can easily work under the vehicle. These lifting tools include both low-tech tools such as basic floor jacks, car ramps and jack stands as well as hydraulic lifts and floor jacks for better efficiency and performance.

* Vehicle Exhaust Removal Systems: vehicle exhaust removal systems are used to capture and remove harmful exhaust fumes to insure optimal air quality in automotive maintenance and repair facilities. These are mandatory equipment as per OSHA Standards in order to limit exposure to harmful vehicular emissions. Common vehicle exhaust removal systems include hose drops as well as reels.

* Lubrication Systems: Automotive lubrication systems include several different types of oil meters, ATF meters, gear lube meters, dispense valves and grease dispenses valves.

The Automotive equipment business is a very large and competitive business. Automotive repair businesses must buy equipment from reputable dealers for the best deals and performance levels.